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            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第1張圖片
            ▲ 馬丁·路德·金紀念圖書館
            The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library. Photo © Trent Bell

            Mecanoo和OTJ Architects改造了華盛頓特區的密斯凡德羅圖書館
            Mecanoo and OTJ Architects Transform a Mies van der Rohe Library in Washington, D.C.

            由專筑網江鵬,小R編譯

            華盛頓特區的馬丁·路德·金紀念圖書館(Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library)的改造,是20年來該地區26個公共圖書館分館全面改造的最高成就,著名建筑師大衛·阿賈耶(David Adjaye)、菲爾·弗里。≒hil Freelon)和Bing Thom為服務設施缺乏的社區設計了新的建筑。但這座由路德維!っ芩埂し驳铝_(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe)最初設計并于1972年開放的馬丁·路德·金紀念館,是該社區系統的中央圖書館,是市中心一處42.6萬平方英尺的現代主義瑰寶,距國家廣場(National Mall)僅四個街區,距白宮以東六個街區。翻新這座建筑已經花了很長時間,建筑師尋找改造思路,解決了單窗格玻璃使空間夏熱冬冷的問題,以及解決低層禮堂擁擠感的問題。

            當荷蘭公司Mecanoo和當地合作伙伴OTJ architects于2020年9月設計的改造工程完成時,新冠疫情正肆虐,對該項目的宣傳與其說是在慶祝盛大的重新開放,不如說是在承認大樓的再次關閉。訪客只能在一層使用電腦和借書卡,設計中的咖啡廳尚未開放,禮堂里回蕩著腳步聲,周圍一片寂靜,屋頂花園可以說是圖書館藏書之外的最大資產, 但是卻不能進入,里面的植物還在持續生長。

            The revitalization of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library in Washington, D.C., is the crowning achievement of the two-decades-long effort to overhaul the district’s 26 public library branches, with notable architects (David Adjaye, Phil Freelon, and Bing Thom) contributing new buildings in underserved neighborhoods. But the MLK Jr. building, originally designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and opened in 1972, serves as the system’s central library, a 426,000-square-foot Modernist jewel in the heart of downtown, just four blocks north of the National Mall and six blocks east of the White House. Refurbishing the building had been a long time coming: wayfinding was difficult; single-pane glazing made spaces either hot in the summer or cold in the winter; the lower-level auditorium felt cramped.
            When the renovation—designed by Dutch firm Mecanoo and local partner OTJ Architects—was completed in September 2020, the Covid pandemic was in full swing and the fanfare for the project was less in the spirit of a grand reopening than simply an acknowledgment that the building was no longer closed. Visitation was limited to ground-level access for computer use and book checkouts; a planned café had yet to open; the auditorium echoed footfalls but was otherwise silent; and the rooftop garden, arguably the library’s biggest asset beyond its collection, was unoccupied and still growing in.

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第2張圖片
            1

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第3張圖片
            2
            ▲ 大廳保留了它最初的結構(1),建筑的外觀(2)也是如此,但沒有那么古板,而是更加活躍。
            The Grand Hall (top) retains the bones of its original iteration (1), as does the building’s exterior (2), but is less staid and more active. Photos © Trent Bell, click to enlarge.


            三年后,疫情仍在繼續,但限制措施減少了很多,圖書館再次以一種溫和、舒適的活力開放,F在,底層的咖啡廳開放了,圖書館的游客可以在吧臺高的柜臺邊喝咖啡,旁邊是落地窗,可以看到人行道和街道的景色。在較低的一層,是一個多媒體創客空間——Fab lab,從縫紉機到3D打印機都在這里展出。屋頂變成了一個露天的植物繁茂的客廳,很容易成為這座城市里流連忘返的最佳場所之一。

            也許這次改造中最重要的設計措施是拆除了原磚石結構的樓梯,以及在圖書館的直線平面內排列著無窗的辦公室內部走廊。Mecanoo的設計總監Francine Houben表示:“所有的書架都放在有陽光的地方,所有人都在磚墻后面的房間里!盚ouben看到了一個扭轉這種關系的機會,他移除了結構上不必要的磚石墻,取而代之的是一個更開放的平面,周圍環繞著座椅,從而使更多的陽光進入室內。在外觀上,密斯標志性的鋼-玻璃幕墻在視覺上與原建筑保持一致,盡管涂了一層新油漆,但他的單窗格玻璃被更節能的LOW-E玻璃取代,這在保護建筑物的同時提高了未來50年的使用能效。

            Two years later, the pandemic continues, but far fewer restrictions remain, and the library once again bustles with a gentle, pulsating energy appropriate to its purpose. Now the ground-level café is open, and library visitors can sip at a bar-height counter beside floor-to-ceiling windows with views of the sidewalk and street. On the lower level, a multimedia makerspace—the Fab Lab—thrums with activity, from sewing machines to 3D printers. And the rooftop has become an open-air, vegetated, Wi-Fi-connected living room that is easily one of the best places to linger in the city.
            Perhaps the most significant architectural move of the revitalization was the surgical removal of masonry stair cores, as well as interior corridors lined with windowless back-of-house offices within the library’s rectilinear plan. “All the shelving was in space where there was daylight, and all the people were behind brick walls in horrible rooms,” says Francine Houben, creative director of Mecanoo. Houben saw an opportunity to invert that relationship by removing structurally unnecessary masonry walls in favor of a more open plan ringed with perimeter seating, thereby bringing more daylight into the interior. On the exterior, Mies’s trademark steel-and-glass curtain wall remains visually identical to the original, albeit with a fresh coat of paint—but his single-pane glazing has been replaced with more energy-efficient bronzed low-E glass that preserves the architecture while improving its energy performance for the next 50 years of use.

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第4張圖片
            ▲ 一個主要的變化是將黑暗的樓梯井改造成帶有彎曲欄桿、金色木材及光線充足的垂直交通核。
            A  major change is the transformation of dark stairwells into light-filled circulation cores with curving railings and blond wood. Photo © Trent Bell


            在一層,新的玻璃現在允許陽光進入寬敞的彎曲樓梯井,取代了以前陰暗的垂直交通核。些樓梯井的內襯是垂直的金色木條,黑色毛氈聲學背襯,這種表達呼應了對圖書館一層大廳的介入設計手法。光滑、彎曲的木質扶手由黑漆鋼支撐,呼應了密斯標志性的幾何外觀。建筑原有的東西和重新思考的東西之間的相互作用體現在慎重的材料選擇上,例如改變地板顏色來劃分新開放的地板中曾經存在的墻壁痕跡。這些顏色的變化與凹陷的海灣燈一致,以前的走廊墻壁與天花板相交。在密斯·凡·德羅的建筑外殼內,內部保留了具有其標志性的許多原始設計,包括家具和照明,但在其他地方也都看到了Mecanoo的設計變化,然而Houben 堅持認為改造升級中對水平和開放的強調仍符合密斯的設計理念。
               
            At the ground level, new glazing now admits daylight into generous curved stairwells that replace the former hidden vertical circulation. These stairwells are lined with vertical strips of blond wood with a black felt acoustical backing, an expression that echoes interventions taken within the Great Hall at the ground level of the library. Smooth, curving wooden handrails are supported with black-painted steel in a nod to the visible Miesian exterior geometry. The interplay between what is original to the building and what has been rethought manifests itself with deliberate material choices, such as changes in floor color to demarcate where walls once existed within the newly opened sweeping floorplates. These color shifts align with recessed cove lights where former corridor walls would have met the ceiling. Within the Mies van der Rohe shell, the interior retains many original aspects of its landmarked Great Hall, including furnishings and lighting, but has seen remarkable change at the hands of Mecanoo everywhere else—yet Houben insists that the emphasis on horizontality and openness in the plan hew to Miesian ideals.

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第5張圖片
            3

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第6張圖片
            4

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第7張圖片
            5

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第8張圖片
            6
            ▲ 各種各樣的空間都位于舊的Miesian盒子中,包括一樓的咖啡廳(3)和數字公共空間(4),兒童圖書館(5)和一個連接三層和四層(6)的通高空間。
            A variety of spaces reside within the old Miesian box, including a café (3) and digital commons (4) on the ground floor, a children’s library (5), and a new double-height space connecting the third and fourth floors (6). Photos © Trent Bell


            馬丁·路德·金圖書館包含了各種不同功能的實體空間:一個專門為兒童服務,另一個為視力低下的人服務,還有一個華盛頓的檔案館,以及它的一般收藏區。每個功能空間都有自己的視覺標識,而達到的效果好壞參半。二層的兒童房和青少年閱覽室在照明和家具選擇上有明確的標識;兒童房還有一個木制滑梯,可以讓年輕的顧客從明亮的樓梯交通核中滑下來,在嚴謹的立面背后增添了一絲奇思妙想。在三樓,Mecanoo設計了一間寬敞的通高閱覽室,從四樓鑿出一個內部空間,向下面的空間開放;該公司在紐約公共圖書館曼哈頓中部分館的改造中使用了類似的切割手法。在樓下,Fab Lab延續了混亂可控的主題設計風格,擁有一個充滿創造性的車間。Houben說:“因為整座建筑都是密斯風格的,對于Fab實驗室,我們決定建一個較低的地下室,在那里我們可以進行所有這些不受密斯風格控制的設計!

            The MLK Library contains a variety of distinct entities: one devoted to children, another serving people with low vision, and an archive of Washingtonia, along with its general collection. Each program gets its own space and its own visual identity, with mixed success. The second-level children’s room and the teen reading room are clearly marked by lighting and furniture choices; the children’s room also boasts a wooden slide that shoots young patrons down one of the bright stair cores, adding a whiff of whimsy behind the rigorous facade. On the third floor, Mecanoo created a grand double-height reading room by carving away an interior bay from the fourth floor to open it to the one below; the firm used a similar structural carve-out in its reconfiguration of the New York Public Library’s Mid-Manhattan Branch. Downstairs, the Fab Lab continues the theme of contained chaos with a workshop full of creative tools. “Because the whole building is so Miesian, for the Fab Labs, we decided to make a lower basement where we have all these kinds of activities not controlled by Mies,” Houben says.

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第9張圖片
            ▲ 一個新的屋頂露臺已經成為圖書館最受歡迎的地方之一。
            A new roof terrace has become one of the most popular places in the library. Photo © Robert Benson


            第五層的頂層公寓是出于歷史保護的考慮,為了讓街道看不見增建的部分,同時保留原有建筑體量的外觀,需要進行一些設計調整;Mecanoo在頂層屋頂的懸挑處延續了垂直循環的彎曲風格,周圍是茂盛的植物,點綴著桌子、椅子和長凳。Houben稱它為屋頂口袋公園,并認為它比以前的構件閣樓有了巨大的改進,因為它還把290個座位的禮堂從地下室搬了出來,有一個通高的空間從四樓連接,傾斜的座位一直上升到頂層,并有一個通過門廳連接花園的出入口。圖書館從地下室到屋頂的所有變化,都展示了Houben對以人為本設計理念的重視,這是21世紀圖書館的一種發展模式:把游客的需求放在首位,同時明智地選擇動靜分區的區域、嚴肅和靈動的空間、必要的服務功能和令人愉快的空間設計通過正確的方式進行組合。
              
            Historic-preservation considerations shaped the fifth-level penthouse, with setbacks required to keep the addition invisible from the street level and retain the appearance of the original building’s volume; Mecanoo continued the playful curvature of the vertical circulation in the penthouse roof’s overhang, which is surrounded by lush plantings interspersed with tables, chairs, and benches. Houben calls it a rooftop pocket park, and sees it as a dramatic improvement over the former mechanicals penthouse, as it also brings the 290-seat auditorium out of the basement, with a double-height space that starts on the fourth floor and raked seating that ascends to the top level, with an exit through a vestibule to the garden. All of the library’s changes, from basement to rooftop, showcase Houben’s emphasis on people-based programming in what is a model for 21st-century libraries: putting visitor needs first while making savvy choices about the right mix of social and quiet areas, serious and whimsical spaces, and necessary services as well as delightful surprises.

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第10張圖片

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第11張圖片

            黑色的盒子里面隱藏著五彩繽紛的“世界”——密斯凡德羅圖書館改造設計第12張圖片

            項目信息
            建筑設計師:Mecanoo — Gary Martinez合伙人;高級項目經理Steven Jensen;設計總監Francine Houben;項目經理Luuk van Wijlick
            建筑師記錄:OTJ建筑師事務所
            工程師:Collaborative Engineering Group (機電與消防);CEG and Engenium (管道與消防);Silman (結構); Wiles Mensch (土木工程)
            總承包商:Smoot/ Gilbane III MLK, A Joint Venture; CMAR: Jair Lynch Real Estate Partners
            項目顧問:Oehme van Sweden (景觀);EHT Traceries (歷史保護);Wiss, Janney, Elstner (表皮)
            客戶:華盛頓公共圖書館
            項目規模:450000平方英尺
            項目總成本:2.11億美元
            竣工時間:2020年9月

            材料來源
            玻璃:Saint-Gobain
            天窗:Wasco
            辦公家具:Herman Miller
            玻璃會議室:MAARS

            Credits
            Design Architect: Mecanoo — Gary Martinez, partner; Steven Jensen, principal/senior project manager; Francine Houben, creative director; Luuk van Wijlick, project manager
            Architect of Record: OTJ Architects
            Engineers: Collaborative Engineering Group (m/e/p/fire protection); CEG and Engenium (plumbing/fire protection); Silman (structural); Wiles Mensch (civil)
            General Contractor: Smoot/ Gilbane III MLK, A Joint Venture; CMAR: Jair Lynch Real Estate Partners
            Consultants: Oehme van Sweden (landscape); EHT Traceries (historic preservation); Wiss, Janney, Elstner (envelope)
            Client: D.C. Public Library
            Size: 450,000 square feet
            Total Project Cost: $211 million
            Completion Date: September 2020

            Sources
            Glass: Saint-Gobain
            Skylights: Wasco
            Office Furniture: Herman Miller
            Glass Conference Rooms: MAARS

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