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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第1張圖片

            學會放手
            LEARNING TO LET GO

            教育絕非生產

            上海的公立學校在教學方法上較為保守,建筑風格類似工廠。然而,新的重固實驗學校卻有望從傳統的紀律教學模式轉向更加非正式、基于探究的教學方,從而實現教學模式的轉變。作為一個為快樂、玩耍和夢想而設計的作品,它的形式表達也體現了教育建筑的范式轉變。

            not factories
            Public schools in Shanghai are conservative in their pedagogy and factory-like in their architecture. The new Chonggu Experimental School however provides the potential for a shift in pedagogy from the traditional disciplinary model to less formal, enquiry-based approaches. It also presents a paradigm shift in formal expression – a design shaped for joy, play and dreaming.

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第4張圖片

            如夢似幻

            學校的設計靈感源于基地旁的運河與已故建筑師張在元那富有詩意的畫作。學校的建筑語言如夢似幻,宛如另一個世界,一個充滿創新、創意與差異化的世界。熟悉的由走廊連接教學單元的學校布局,在面向校園內部庭院的方向愈加蜿蜒曲折。一開始是如同曲柄形狀的樓板,然后是弧形的玻璃,接著是拋物線形的凸窗,很快就能看到隨著運動而振動的陽臺線條。眼前的建筑仿佛被外力撼動——就好像在一端搖動一根繩子,不同大小的波浪沿著繩子呼嘯而過,然后突然靜止,定格在一個凍結的瞬間。

            daydreaming
            Inspired by the site’s canal and by the lyrical drawings of late architect, Zhang Zai Yuan, the formal language of the school is dream-like, another world, a world of innovation, creativity, and difference. The familiar school typology of slab with external corridor is increasingly distorted toward the school interior courtyard. Observed at first by a crank in the slab, then by a bent window, then by parabolic bay windows, and soon by lines of balconies vibrating with movement. As if reality has been shaken — like a rope held at one end, with waves of different sizes hurtling along its length, suddenly stopped in a frozen moment.  

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第6張圖片

            不是填鴨式教學,而是自主學習

            學術界對正式與非正式教學模型的有效性仍存在分歧。然而中國仍處于一個極端,教師被視為所有知識的源泉,學生則通過死記硬背來學習正確答案。而應用雷焦·艾米利亞(Reggio Emilia)教育理念的學校則處于另一個極端:學生和教師在課程設置方面都擁有很大的自主權。我們對傳統教室再熟悉不過了。它們通常方方正正,正面擺滿一排排面向老師的課桌。而非正式教學空間則是大型的、如同根狀結構的流動空間,教師們監督學生在其中獨立或以小組形式進行學習。在中國,師生比例很高,40-50人的大班是常態。在這樣的比例下,除了采用傳統的教學模式并配備其所需的大量教室外,很難適用其他任何教學模式。然而使用小組教學、探究型教學,都需要投入更多的師資力量,相應地也會帶來更高的教學成本。

            但是鑒于當前不斷下降的出生率,中國預計在校學生數量將很快大幅下降,這為嘗試新的教學法創造了契機。新建的學校建筑必須足夠靈活,使之可以適應并推動這些更開放的教學舉措。

            not spoon-fed but student-driven
            Academics remain split on the effectiveness of formal vs informal pedagogic models. China remains at one extreme, the teacher as the font of all knowledge, and students rote learning correct answers. Schools such as those applying Reggio Emilia philosophy are at the other, where students, and teachers, have significant degrees of autonomy over their curriculum. Traditional classrooms are well known to us. They are usually boxy and have an array of desks facing the front. Informal teaching spaces on the other hand are larger rhizomatic, flowing field conditions where teams of teachers oversee students working independently or in small groups. The student-teacher ratio is high in China, with large classes of 40-50 students the norm. With this ratio it is difficult to manage any but the traditional pedagogic model and its requisite multitude of classrooms. Team-teaching, enquiry driven approaches require a greater number of teachers; and corresponding higher wage bill.
            At the current declining birth rate, China anticipates a dramatic drop in the number of school students. This will free space, and teachers, in existing schools and create opportunities for experimentation with pedagogies. New school architecture needs flexibility to adapt to the space requirements and enable these progressive initiatives.

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第8張圖片

            若不能更輕松,至少也應該更有趣

            中國學生的受教育水平非常高,這既與艱苦的學習方式有關,也與教學方式有關。為爭奪優質大學名額的競爭從幼兒園就開始了。童年學習負擔過重的問題雖已得到有關部門的承認并試圖解決,但事實證明徹底改善仍有一定難度。一種更加以學生為中心的教學模式可能是解決之道,它可以在不降低所需學習強度的情況下,為學生提供一個更加多樣、充實和有趣的教學課程。此外,這種模式可能還有助于學生們做好準備,更為靈活地應對未來人工智能的挑戰。

            if not less, then at least more engaging
            Chinese students are extremely highly educated; this is due to the arduous hours of study as much as to the style of teaching. Competition for good university places begins in kindergarten. The issue of children heavily burdened with study is acknowledged by authorities but has proven impossible to alleviate. A more student-centered pedagogic model could be one solution to creating a more varied, fulfilling, and enjoyable curriculum, without reducing the required learning intensity. It might also prepare students to be nimbler for an AI future.

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            靈活多變的未來形態

            重固實驗學?梢酝ㄟ^多種方式轉變為一個以學生為中心的,更適合自主學習的空間。首先,得益于框架式結構體系,每兩個或三個教室之間的墻壁可以由活動墻板取代,這可以實現更大團隊的教學。其次,曲折連續的外走廊可以用玻璃封閉,以創建一條寬敞舒適的內部街道,以便舉辦如展覽等類型的交流活動。第三,樓層中的節點或轉折處的房間可以被設計為學生自學和討論的空間。最后,裙房公共建筑的內部功能以寬敞蜿蜒的走廊相互連接,并局部擴大,形成容納各種學習和課題討論的附加空間。在這些非正式學習空間中,學生可以進行小組學習、數字化學習、課題調研、咨詢問答和STEAM學習。

            future proofing
            Chonggu Experimental School can be transformed from a traditional teaching model to one that suits student centered learning in a number of ways. Firstly, the walls between each pair, or group of three, classrooms can be replaced by operable walls, enabled by the column structure. This enables team teaching. Secondly the classroom corridors, running the length of the slab building, can become enclosed with glazing to create a generous internal street suitable for programs such as exhibitions. Thirdly the rooms at the knuckles in the slab building are designed to be used as student study and project space. Finally, the large meandering corridor network within the two-story extra-curricular buildings are wide and designed with bulges to accommodate all manner of study and nooks and pods. Peer to peer learning, digital-based learning, project-based learning, student enquiry, and STEAM learning can be supported in these informal spaces.

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第11張圖片
            ▲ 教室標準段 Standard classroom

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            看向窗外

            該地塊毗鄰青浦數百條運河之一。體育館、圖書館、禮堂、音樂教室、藝術教室和各種特殊功能都布置在這里,從窗戶、陽臺和露臺可以俯瞰運河。也許未來的某一天,現有的公共運河圍欄得以拆除后,學校與運河可以融為一體,形成濱河景觀,景觀綠地和河流也都可以成為教學的一部分。較高的教學樓陽臺可以俯瞰公共教學樓的綠色屋頂和整個濱河綠帶。

            look out
            The site is adjacent one of Qinpu’s hundreds of canals. Gymnasium, library, auditorium, music school, art school, and various special functions are placed here with windows, verandas and terraces overlooking the canal. At a future date the existing public canal fence should be removed and a landscape developed to integrate the school with the canal. The taller classroom building’s balconies overlook the green roofs of the specialized buildings and the canal.

            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第15張圖片

            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第16張圖片

            看臺與球場

            體育館和食堂位于運動場旁邊。大臺階將二樓的屋頂花園與運動場連接起來,為學生提供了一個聚集場所。食堂的位置使其能夠更好的與后面較高的教學樓共享景觀視野。食堂大廳及其露臺可以俯瞰整個運動場地。

            bleachers and pitches
            The sports hall and canteen are located adjacent to the sports grounds. Grandstand seating connects the rooftop and second floor level with the sports fields and provides a place for students to hang out. The canteen is located to enable further view sharing from the adjacent taller teaching wing. Along with its terrace the canteen hall has broad views over the sports fields, activities, and beyond.

            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第17張圖片

            高效的裝配式建筑

            盡管樓板邊緣呈曲線形態,但建筑采用標準結構網格,以便組裝預制構件。外墻、柱子、樓板和樓梯都經過合理化設計,使整個項目和每棟建筑的預制率都達到40%。預制件可降低成本、減少浪費和縮短工期,減少對城市的干擾,此外還能保證更高品質的建筑細節。

            pre-fab
            Despite the curved edges of the floor slabs, the buildings adopt a standard structural grid to facilitate the assembly of prefabricated components. The external walls, columns, floor slabs and staircases are rationalized to enable a minimum 40% prefabrication rate for both the overall construction and for each individual building. Prefabrication reduces cost, time, wastage, and urban disruption.  It also enables a higher quality of construction and finish.

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第19張圖片

            智慧應對炎熱夏季

            為了應對青浦的炎熱夏天,降低碳排放,提高舒適度,利用水平屋檐和豎向構件進行被動式遮陽,能防止大部分夏季陽光進入建筑。為了支持可持續的城市排水系統、達成海綿城市目標、保護生物多樣性和降低城市熱島效應,大部分場地和建筑屋頂都使用當地植物進行了綠化覆蓋。

            summer smart
            To counter Qingpu’s notoriously hot summers, and to lower carbon consumption and improve comfort levels, passive solar control is employed.  Eaves and fins prevent the majority of summer sun from entering the buildings.  The majority of the site and rooftops are vegetated. This supports sustainable urban drainage systems, sponge city objectives, bio-diversity and the lowering of the urban heat island phenomenon.

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第21張圖片

            挖掘潛力

            日益流行的團隊教學法聲稱要發掘所有學生的潛能,尤其是那些在傳統教學體系中缺乏積極性的學生。同樣,重固實驗學校也為各類教育工作者提供了發揮自身潛能、參與其他教學方式的機會。學校的建筑風格支持傳統的教學方法,但重要的是,如果有一位開明而富有冒險精神的校長,它同樣會鼓勵和支持其他的教學方法。

            potential filled
            The increasingly popular team-teaching pedagogies profess to finding the potential of all students, particularly those who are unmotivated in the traditional system. Chonggu Experimental School likewise provides the opportunity for all manner of educators to fulfill their own potential and engage in other ways of teaching. The architecture supports a traditional pedagogy but importantly it will equally encourage and support alternative methods should an enlightened and adventurous head teacher arrive at the school.


            技術圖紙

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第25張圖片

            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第26張圖片

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            上海師范大學附屬青浦實驗學校第28張圖片

            項目信息

            設計公司:BAU建筑城市設計事務所
            項目情況:2023年已建成
            地點:上海,青浦區
            建筑面積:21,425㎡
            建設投資:14536.5萬元
            類型:公立學校
            功能項目:小學 1-6 年級,20 個教室;初中 7-9 年級,16 個教室;食堂、健身房、報告廳、劇場、圖書館;科學教室、音樂室、舞蹈室、美術室、運動場。

            BAU項目組成員:
            建筑:James Brearley,羅懷利,廖望,黃鶴,李正,Francisco Garcia,王雙貂,覃小航,姚文軒
            景觀:黃芳,郭列俠,賀雨晴,羅莉,師政婷
            室內:王明棟,鄭佳敏

            客戶:上海市青浦區教育綜合事務中心
            代建單位:上海青浦新城發展(集團)有限公司  
            合作設計院:上海瀚聯建筑設計咨詢有限公司
            施工單位:中鐵四局
            攝影:合什攝影

            Project data
            Design Firm: BAU Brearley Architects+Urbanists
            Project Status: Completed 2023
            Location: Shanghai, Qingpu Distric
            Construction Area: 21,425㎡
            Construction Cost: ¥145.365 million
            Typology: public school
            Program: primary school Year 1-6, twenty classrooms; middle school Year 7-9, sixteen classrooms; canteen, gym, lecture hall, theater, library; science classrooms, music rooms, dance rooms, art rooms, sports grounds.

            BAU Project Team:
            Architecture: James Brearley, Huaili Luo, Wang Liao, He Huang, Zheng Li, Francisco Garcia, Shuangdiao Wang, Xiaohang Qin, Wenxuan Yao;
            Landscape: Fang Huang, Liexia Guo, Yuqing He, Li Luo, Zhengting Shi;
            Interior: Mingdong Wang, Jiaming Zheng

            Client: Shanghai Qingpu District Education Comprehensive Affairs Centre
            Project Management: Shanghai Qingpu Newcity Development (Group) Co.,Ltd.
            Engineer & architecture documentation: Shanghai Hanlian Architectural Design Consulting Co. Ltd.
            Contractor: China Railway No.4 Engineering Group Co.,Ltd.
            Photographer: INNSimages


            來源:本文由BAU建筑城市設計事務所提供稿件,所有著作權歸屬BAU建筑城市設計事務所所有。

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